Viremia Là Gì

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Medically reviewed by Elaine K. Luo, M.D. — Written by Jacquelyn Cafasso — Updated on August 14, 2018

What is viremia?

Viremia is a medical term for viruses present in the bloodstream. A virut is a tiny, microscopic organism made of genetic material inside a protein coating. Viruses depkết thúc on a living host, like a human or animal, for survival. They survive sầu by invading cells & using those cells lớn multiply & produce other viruses. This is called viral replication.

There are many different types of viruses, and they are highly contagious. Some viruses only infect the skin, but others can move sầu inlớn the bloodstream. The signs & symptoms of viremia depover on which virus you have sầu. Once in the blood, a virus has access to lớn almost every tissue và organ in your toàn thân. While viremia commonly occurs during a viral infection, it’s only dangerous in certain infections.


Viremia can be classified into types. These include:

primary viremia: spread of the vi khuẩn into lớn the blood from the initial site of infection (where the virus first entered the body)secondary viremia: spread of the virus khổng lồ other organs that come inlớn tương tác with the blood where the virut replicates & then enters the bloodstream once moreactive viremia: viremia caused by the replication of viruses after they enter the bloodpassive sầu viremia: entry of the virut directly inkhổng lồ the bloodstream without the need for viral replication, such as from a mosquito bite

Viremia is caused by a vi khuẩn. Actually, many different types of viruses can cause viremia.

A virut attaches to lớn one of your cells, releases its DNA or RNA, takes control of the cell, và forces it lớn replicate the virus. Examples of viruses that enter the bloodstream include:


If you have sầu viremia, chances are the infection spread from someone else that you were in cthua tương tác with. Some of the ways viruses can be spread include:

sexual contactblood lớn blood transmission (for example, from drug users sharing needles with an infected person)via the respiratory tract (contact with saliva, coughing, sneezing, etc.)through the bite of an infected insect or animal, like a mosquito lớn or a tickthrough a cut in the skinfecal-oral (liên hệ with feces)from mother to fetus through breast milk

The most comtháng route of transmission for viruses is through the respiratory tract. But not all viruses can be spread this way. For example, HIV can only be passed from person khổng lồ person from blood or bodily fluids & sometimes from mother to fetus. Viruses must invade a living cell khổng lồ reproduce, & they can’t live sầu for long without a host.

Some viruses enter the bloodstream directly through the bite of an infected insect or animal, such as Zika virut, which can be spread by a bite from an infected mosquito lớn.

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The symptoms of viremia vary depending on which type of virus has entered the body toàn thân.

In general, viral infections cause the following symptoms:

feverheadachebody toàn thân achesjoint paindiarrhearashchillsfatigue

You may not get sichồng from a viral infection. Sometimes, your immune system can fight it off before you have sầu any symptoms.

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Your doctor may be able to lớn diagnose viremia by assessing your symptoms. For example, muscle aches, fever, và swollen lymph glands might indicate that you have sầu viremia. And your doctor may also ask you some questions. Your answers to the following might assist in a diagnosis:

Have sầu you been in liên hệ with a sick individual?Have you recently traveled out of the country or khổng lồ an area where there is a known outbreak of a certain virus?Have you had unprotected sex?Have sầu you shared any needles? Have you had a recent blood transfusion?Have sầu you been bitten by an animal or tichồng recently?

Your doctor can also look for the presence of viruses in your bloodstream through a blood demo. After drawing blood, the sample will be tested in a laboratory using a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A PCR can detect viral DNA or RNA.


Once a virut enters the bloodstream, it has access lớn almost every tissue and organ in your body. Some viruses target specific tissues and might be named after the specific tissue they infect. For example:

An enteric vi khuẩn replicates in the gastrointestinal system.A neurotropic vi khuẩn replicates in cells of the nervous system.A pantropic vi khuẩn can replicate in many organs.

The virus injures your cells and may induce apoptosis, or programmed cell death. Viremia can lead lớn complications if your immune system can’t fight it off, or if you don’t receive treatment.

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Complications will depend on what specific virut has entered the bloodstream. Some complications include:

brain damage or neurological problems (such as with the poliovirus)skin lesionsinflammation of the liver (hepatitis)weakened immune systeminflammation of the heartblindnessparalysisdeath

Treatment depends on the virut. Sometimes, treatment involves waiting for your immune system to clear the infection on its own. In the meantime, you can treat your symptoms khổng lồ help make you feel better. Treatments can include:

ingesting fluidstaking acetaminophen (Tylenol) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) for fever và toàn thân achestaking anti-diarrheal medications such as loperamide (Imodium)using anti-itch creams for rashesusing nasal decongestantsusing throat-numbing lozenges for a sore throat

Antibiotics don’t work for viral infections. There are certain medications called antivirals that can work in the bloodstream to stop the virus from replicating. Examples of antiviral medications include:

ganciclovir (Zirgan)ribavirin (RibaTab)famciclovir (Famvir)immune globulin

Antiviral drugs are difficult to create và they can also be toxic to human cells. In addition, viruses can develop resistance to these drugs. Fortunately, vaccines are available khổng lồ prevent infections with many of the most dangerous viruses. A vaccine is a substance made from part of a virut or a deactivated virus that is injected into your body. Vaccines help prevent infection by stimulating the body’s immune system to lớn recognize and destroy a virut.


The outlook depends on the type of vi khuẩn you are infected with. Some virut strains are deadlier than others. In general, the earlier an infection is diagnosed, the better the outlook. People with compromised immune systems often have sầu a worse outlook. However, medical advancements & the invention of vaccines have greatly improved the outlook for viremia over the past few decades.


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Medically reviewed by Elaine K. Luo, M.D. — Written by Jacquelyn Cafasso — Updated on August 14, 2018