Processed Meat Là Gì

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IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to lớn Humans. Red Meat & Processed Meat. Lyon (FR): International Agency for Retìm kiếm on Cancer; 2018. (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks khổng lồ Humans, No. 114.)


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4.1. Digestion & metabolism

The composition of red meat & processed meat, as well as their potential contaminants, is described in detail in Section 1 of this Monograph. Red meat & processed meat are sources of high-unique protein, fat in highly variable amounts, & a range of micronutrients. The impact of the digestion of protein và fat, and the modifications that these macronutrients may undergo in the processing of meat, is addressed in this section. The specific components of red meat và processed meat, including haem iron, lipid oxidation products, heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), & N-nitroso compounds (NOCs), that are potentially involved in carcinogenesis are discussed in Section 4.5.

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On a normal mixed diet, the amount of protein rather than the source determines the quantity that reaches the colon (Silvester và Cummings, 1995). Hence, high-meat, low-fibre diets may stimulate protein fermentation in the colon, producing short- & branched-chain fatty acids, ammonia, phenolic và indolic compounds, and hydroren sulfide (O’Keefe, 2008).

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Bacterial proteases và peptidases are more active when pH is neutral khổng lồ alkaline. In the proximal colon, pH is more acidic due khổng lồ the production of short-chain fatty acids, primarily from carbohydrate fermentation, but also from reductive deamination of many amino acids. In more distal parts of the colon, pH is higher and protein fermentation becomes more prominent. In relation to lớn meat intake, ammonia & hydrogen sulfide are the most critical compounds because of their known toxiđô thị (Attene-Ramos et al., 2007; Windey et al., 2012). Meat is rich in sulfur-containing amino acids, possibly leading to higher hydroren sulfide concentrations in the colon. However, hydrogene sulfide in the gut originates from both the fermentation of sulfur-containing amino acids and dietary sulfate.

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A diet high in red meat or processed meat may contain high levels of fat. The digestion of food lipids consists of a series of enzyme-catalysed steps resulting in absorbable components, whereby the release of bile from the gallbladder is essential. It has been suggested that dietary fat promotes the development of cancer of the colorectum (Boyle et al., 1985; Reddy, 1992). Several mechanisms have sầu been postulated khổng lồ explain this association, including the stimulating effect of high-fat intake on the secretion of secondary bile acids in the gut; this proposed mechanism has received the most attention. These bile acids may promote tumour formation by acting as aggressive surfactants on the mucosa, thus increasing cell loss & proliferation (Bruce, 1987; Owen, 1997; Bernstein et al., 2005). Other proposed mechanisms for the promoting role of dietary fat include an increase in the amount of không lấy phí fatty acids in the colonic lumen, which may damage the colonic epithelium and induce cell proliferation, và an augmented risk for obesity (Calle & Kaaks, 2004). Dietary fat intake is also associated with peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids (see Section 4.5.2).